Iodine deficiency is the most important problem around the World. According to the WHO data about XNUMX billion people suffer from deficiency of this trace element. The source of iodine in daily diet can be the biofortified vegetables. The number of people who are overweight and obese, in Poland and in the world, is growing at an alarming rate. People who are overweight or obese are more likely to develop oxidative stress and chronic inflammation, which is why they develop comorbidities such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, hypertension and cancer more often. Currently, the fight against excessive body weight focuses primarily on attempts to change the lifestyle of society. Research indicates that utilizing the natural potential of plants can be an alternative to traditional pharmacological therapies. Iodine deficiency may be one of the causes of overweight and obesity. Iodine is a trace elements necessary for the proper development and maintenance of human health. Currently, the most effective way of the iodine deficiency controlling is universal salt iodization. On the other hand, the WHO recommends to reduce salt intake to XNUMX g/ day, due to increased risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke and stomach cancer.
Biofortification of vegetables during the cultivation with iodine can be an excellent way to increase intake of it with daily diets. Vegetables can be an effective tool to provide increased concentration of iodine and other bioactive compounds i.e. polyphenolic compounds because they are consumed daily in most families. According to the recommendations of the Polish Food and Nutrition Institute, we should eat four portions of vegetables and one portion of fruit each day. Thus, biofortified vegetables consumption, together with the recommended by WHO iodized salt can improve the nutritional status of the population without the risk of side effects occurrence. This can also help in body weight management. In our previous studies we have shown the high efficiency of lettuce and carrots iodine biofortification through soil fertilization with potassium iodide (KI). Moreover, during animal studies we confirmed the use of iodine from biofortified lettuce to properly iodine nutrition of rat’s body. Therefore, it is justified to conduct further research on the biofortification of vegetables during cultivation in iodine and assessment of its bioavailability in animal study and with the participation of humans. Research team from Department of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Food Technology, University of Agriculture in Kraków is prepared and has experience in conducting research in the assessment of iodine bioavailability.
University of Agriculture in Krakow
Aneta Kopeć PhD. D.Sc. is faculty member in Department of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Food Technology, University of Agriculture in Kraków. Main research are biofortification of vegetables with iodine, bioactive components in prevention and treatment of non-communicable diseases and assessment of nutritional state, nutritional pattern and nutritional knowledge different groups of polish populations.
Kopeć A, Piątkowska E. Bieżanowska-Kopeć R., Pysz M., Koronowicz A., Kapusta-Duch J., Smoleń S., Rakoczy R., Skoczylas Ł., Leszczyńska T., Ledwożyw-Smoleń I. (2015) . Effect of lettuce biofortified with iodine by soil fertilization on iodine concentration in various tissues and selected biochemical parameters in serum of Wistar rats. J Funct Foods. 2015; 14: 479-486.
Piątkowska E, Kopeć A, Bieżanowska-Kopeć R, Pysz M, Kapusta-Duch J, Koronowicz AA, Smoleń S, Skoczylas Ł, Ledwożyw-Smoleń I, Rakoczy R, Maślak E. (2016). The Impact of Carrot Enriched in Iodine through Soil Fertilization on Iodine Concentration and Selected Biochemical Parameters in Wistar Rats. PLoS ONE 11 (4): e0152680. doi: 10.1371 / journal.pone.0152680
WHO. World Health Organization. Assessment of iodine deficiency disorders and monitoring their elimination: a guide for program managers. –3rd ed. ISBN 978 92 4 159582 7; 2007.
WHO (2014). Salt reduction and iodine fortification strategies in public health. Geneva, Switzerland, ISBN 9789241506694.
WHO (2008). 2008-2013 Action Plan for the Global Strategy for the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases. WHO Document Production Services, Geneva, Switzerland, ISBN 9789241597418
WHO / UNICEF (2007). Iodine deficiency in Europe: a continuing public health problem. Geneva ISBN 9789241593960.