Lung cancer prediction

The most commonly diagnosed malignancy in women is breast cancer. In recent years, among Polish women, the annual number of deaths exceeded XNUMX. In the world, more than XNUMX% of women who have cancer suffer from breast cancer. The majority of these women live in highly developed countries. Among men, the incidence of breast cancer is much lower. In recent years about XNUMX new cases per year have been reported. The threat of this disease must be taken seriously (Tkaczuk-Włach et al. XNUMX; Didkowska and Wojciechowska XNUMX). It is general knowledge that the best cure is prevention. However, most people, despite being aware of the importance of prevention, do not apply it in their daily lives. Most often it is the result of lack of time or the need to put a lot of effort in it. The solution of this problem would be to discover a prevention that is not burdensome to the patient and does not require modification of the daily lifestyle. Conjugated linoleic acid dienes (CLA) have a scientifically documented position in cancer prophylaxis for many types of cancer, including breast cancer. The average adult person is estimated to consume only one third to half of the recommended amount of CLA, which, as has been demonstrated, may reduce the risk of malignancy (Dhiman et al. XNUMX; Ip et al. XNUMX). This is primarily due to the fact that, naturally, CLA is mainly contained in ruminant products (whole milk, other dairy products and meat). As observed in in vivo studies, limited intake, is insufficient to achieve preventive effects. Based on studies conducted in experimental animals, it was extrapolated that the minimum level of dietary intake of CLA, for obtaining preventive properties should be at least XNUMX g/day (Ritzenthaler, McGuire & Falen XNUMX). In order to increase the CLA in the daily diet, the University of Agriculture in Cracow, Poland attempted to enrich these fatty acids in chicken eggs by modifying the nutritional feed of laying hens. The choice of chicken eggs as a carrier of CLA isomers was determined by the high susceptibilty of bile lipids to changes in composition as a result of dietary modification as well as the widespread availability of this food product on the market. In addition, eggs are characterized by multifunctional properties, including high nutritional value. Also, cholesterol in egg yolk, which was once assumed to have a negative impact on health, in recent years has been found to have a positive influence. Including CLA in the diet was based on previous studies in which the authors stated that "so enriched in CLA the egg meets the criteria of the functional product" (Franczyk-Żarów et al. XNUMX). CLA has been shown to build up not only in egg yolks but also in chicken meat. Importantly, the nutritional modification of the feed contributes positively to the composition of the CLA isomers in the enriched product, allowing for a proportion of CISXNUMX, transXNUMXCLA: TransXNUMX, cisXNUMXCLA such as that occurring naturally in food products (milk, meat) (Koronowicz et al. XNUMX; Bouattour et al. XNUMX; Jones et al. XNUMX). This way of enriching the diet, compared to concentrated CLA supplements, is more appropriate, because the isomer cisXNUMX, transXNUMXCLA, the most widespread in food products, always occurs in a more advantageous form than TransXNUMX, cisXNUMXCLA, i.e. at a ratio of approx. XNUMX:XNUMX (Dhiman et al. XNUMX; Khanal and Dhiman XNUMX). In generally available dietary supplements, CLA CisXNUMX, TransXNUMX and TRANSXNUMX, cisXNUMX usually occur in equal proportions (XNUMX:XNUMX) or even inverted, i.e. with a quantitative advantage of the isomer transXNUMX, cisXNUMXCLA. On the basis of existing studies, it can be concluded that products naturally enriched in CLA show a stronger preventive effect on cancer cells than synthetic preparations of CLA (Koronowicz et al. XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX).

We wish to propose cooperation with the University of Agriculture (Department of Food Technology, Department of Human Nutrition and Dietetics) to continue research on the tumor model in vivo by conducting clinical trials and eventually placing the product on the market. This proposition is based on 1) the results of our own research, 2) the nutritional value of eggs, 3) the willing consumption of eggs by the Polish people for whom they are a basic dietary product, 4) eggs are recommended for daily consumption by the Institute of Food and Nutrition (Food pyramid, 2016 R), 5) eggs, a concentrated source of large quantities of bioactive ingredients, are good raw material for nutraceutics and biomedical application. Our research so far has demonstrated that CLA-enriched eggs could be used in the prevention of cancer. Their action is safe and more effective than synthetic CLA.

Robert Gosik
University of Agriculture in Krakow

A graduate of engineering studies in Food Technology and Human Nutrition. Currently a graduate student in Food Technology and Human Nutrient at the University of Agriculture in Krakow.

Bibliography / References

  1. Dhiman TR, Nam SH, and Ure AL 2005. Factors affecting conjugated linoleic acid content in milk and meat. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 45, 463 – 482, 2005. doi: 10.1080 / 10408390591034463.
  2. Didkowska J, Wojciechowska U, Zatoński W. 2011. Tumors in Poland in the year 2009. Warsaw. Oncology Center Institute.
  3. Franczyk-Żarów M., Koronowicz A., Szymczyk B., Bieżanowska-Kopeć R., Leszczyńska T. 2017. Effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and thermal processing on fatty acid composition of enriched chicken meat; J. Anim. Feed Sci. 2017; 26 (3)
  4. Franczyk-Żarów M., Kostogrys RB, Szymczyk B., Gajda M., et al. 2008. Functional effects of eggs, naturally enriched with conjugated linoleic acid, on the blood lipid profile, development of atherosclerosis and composition of atherosclerotic plaque in apolipoprotein E and lowdensity lipoprotein receptor double-knockout mice (apoE / LDLR¡ / ¡). Br J Nutr 99 (1), 49 – 58, 2008. doi: 10.1017 / S0007114507793893.
  5. Khanal RC and Dhiman TR 2004. Biosynthesis of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA): a review. Pak J Nutr 3 (2), 72 – 81, 2004. doi: 10.3923 / pjn.2004.72.81.
  6. Koronowicz AA, Banks P. 2018. Antitumor Properties of CLA Enriched Food Products. Nutr Cancer. 2018 May-Jun; 70 (4): 529-545. doi: 10.1080 / 01635581.2018.1460684.
  7. Koronowicz AA, Banks P., Domagała D., Master A., ​​Leszczyńska T., Piasna E., Marynowska M., Laidler P. 2016. Fatty acids extract from CLA-enriched egg yolks can mediate transcriptome reprogramming of MCF-7 cancer cells to prevent their growth and proliferation. Genes Nutr. 2016 Jul 27; 11: 22. doi: 10.1186 / s12263-016-0537-z.
  8. Koronowicz AA, Banks P., Master A., ​​Domagała D., Piasna-Słupecka E., Drozdowska M., Sikora E., Laidler P. 2017. Fatty Acids of CLA-Enriched Egg Yolks Can Induce Transcriptional Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells. PPAR Res. 2017, 2017: 2865283. doi: 10.1155 / 2017 / 2865283.
  9. Koronowicz AA, Banks P., Szymczyk B., Leszczyńska T., Master A., ​​Piasna E., Szczepański W., Domagała D., Kopeć A., Piątkowska E., Laidler P. 2016. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid affects blood parameters, liver morphology and expression of selected hepatic genes in laying hens. Br Poult Sci. 2016 Oct; 57 (5): 663-673. doi: 10.1080 / 00071668.2016.1192280.
  10. Koronowicz AA, Drozdowska M., Banks P., Piasna-Słupecka E., Domagała D., Leszczyńska T. 2018. Fatty Acids of CLA-enriched Egg Yolks Can Induce Mitochondrial Pathway of Apoptosis in MCF7 Breast Cancer Cells. Anticancer Res. 2018 May; 38 (5) 2861-2870. doi: 10.21873 / anticanres.12531.
  11. Koronowicz AA, Master A., ​​Banks P., Piasna-Słupecka E., Domagała D., Drozdowska M., Leszczyńska T. 2019. PPAR receptors expressed from vectors containing CMV promoter can enhance self-transcription in the presence of fatty acids from CLA-enriched egg yolks - a novel method for studies of PPAR ligands. Nutr Cancer.
  12. Ritzenthaler K. L., McGuire MK, Falen R., Shultz TD, Dasgupta N., and McGuire MA 2001. Estimation of conjugated linoleic acid intake by written dietary assessment methodologies under estimates actual intake evaluated by food duplicate methodology. J Nutr 131: 1548 – 1554, 2001.